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In recent years, China's manufacturing industry has developed very rapidly. As a core process of manufacturing industry, the efficiency and quality of metal processing will greatly affect the development of manufacturing industry. Metal processing is to process the metal base metal into a whole plate, and then cut and classify the whole plate according to the type of parts.
At present, the common metal cutting methods are: flame cutting, laser cutting, wire cutting, plate shear machining, plasma cutting and water cutting. This paper mainly introduces the differences of various common cutting processes for your reference only.
1. Flame cutting
At present, flame cutting is mainly for thick plate processing technology. Flame cutting has great advantages for metal plates above 50mm, but it has its shortcomings in thin plate cutting.
The accuracy of flame cutting is not high. The cutting heat of thin plate has great influence, obvious deformation, and even direct penetration. If you want to cut an ideal workpiece with flame, it has high requirements for the technology of operators.
2. Laser cutting
The laser cutting equipment started with the thin plate field. The thin plate within 5mm has fast cutting speed and high precision. Now the high-power laser cutting equipment can process the plate within 50mm, and the cutting effect is better than flame cutting.
At present, the laser cutting speed is faster than other similar cutting processes, and the accuracy can be controlled at ± 0.05mm, but the equipment cost is high, and the cutting effect in the field of thick plate is not ideal.
3. Wire cutting
Wire cutting is also called electric spark wire cutting. It is developed on the basis of EDM perforation and forming. Wire cutting can cut regardless of material thickness and hardness. Wire cutting can also process complex graphics, and its accuracy is comparable to that of laser cutting.
Wire cutting also has some shortcomings. It can only process conductive materials. The cutting efficiency is slow. It can only process a few millimeters per minute. It can only be processed vertically, not horizontally. The overall processing mode is limited.
4. Plate shears
The plate shearing machine uses the moving upper blade and fixed lower blade to apply shear force to metal plates of various thicknesses by using reasonable blade gap, so as to break and separate the plates according to the required size.
The processing accuracy of the plate shearing machine is moderate, which has great advantages compared with flame cutting, and the processing efficiency is also very prominent. However, the plate shears can only process straight lines, and can not do arc processing and complex graphics processing.
5. Plasma cutting machine
Plasma cutting is a processing method that uses the heat of high-temperature plasma arc to melt part or part of the metal at the workpiece notch, and uses the momentum of high-speed plasma to remove the molten metal to form the notch.
Plasma cutting machine has large cutting thickness, small cutting deformation, no preheating for cutting, and the equipment cost is relatively low compared with laser cutting machine. However, the precision error of plasma cutting machine is large, the light pollution is obvious in the cutting process, and the noise and dust pollution can not be avoided.
6. Ultra high pressure water cutting
Ultra high pressure water cutting, also known as water knife and water jet, is a high-energy water flow generated by multistage pressurization of ordinary water, and then through a very fine Ruby nozzle to spray cutting at a speed of nearly kilometers per second. This cutting method is called ultra-high pressure water cutting.
Water cutting has strong universality, and almost all materials can be cut. The cutting has no thermal effect, and the material section is flat without deformation. However, the use cost of water cutting is high, the cutting requires a lot of water and sand, and the environmental pollution is serious. Because there is water during cutting, it is easy to rust when processing carbon steel, and the later maintenance is troublesome.
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